What Is an Abstract to a Paper

how to write an abstract

Abstract is an indispensable element for every scientific article, essay or other type of written work. It is a short explanation of the content of the text. With respect to the scientific article, it is a characteristic that reflects the essence, purpose, main problems of the studied topic.

Annotation functions:

  • Describes the essence of the content of a scientific article;
  • Makes it clear whether to refer to the text;
  • It is used for searching in information systems.

Mandatory moments reflected in the annotation to a scientific article:

  • Description of the topic of research or analysis;
  • Description of the problem or task to be solved;
  • Goals set by the author;
  • Results of the study.

The abstract should reflect the novelty introduced by the author into the study of a particular problem or topic, that is, the relevance of the phenomena under study in comparison with the studies already available in this direction. Its main task is to achieve interest, intrigue readers.

Following the annotation, the key words of the scientific article are formulated. They are used to classify articles, as well as for accurate and fast search in all kinds of databases. Both the abstract and the key words must be correctly composed. This will make it possible to use it by the target circle of persons according to the originally intended purpose.

How to Write an Abstract to a Paper

Writing an abstract is far from simple. Its content should fully correspond to the purpose of the annotation itself and at the same time be concise, understandable and effective. Therefore, in spite of the fact that the abstract is placed before the content of the article itself, it is written after the work on the main text is completed.

Since the abstract reflects not only the essence of the essay, its relevance and content, but also the results of the conducted research, it is necessary to write it having a clear understanding of the problem under consideration, profound knowledge  in the areaand specific solutions to the tasks posed.

To properly write an abstract to a scientific article, it is recommended that you follow certain rules:

  • Write in a scientific language, understandable and accessible to a wide range of users;
  • Briefly and clearly state the necessary characteristics of the article;
  • Strictly comply with the requirements imposed on the content of the structure, essence and volume of the abstract.

Only a correctly written abstract will make it possible to open its accessibility to readers and create conditions for wide dissemination.

Example of an Abstract with Keywords

The development of enterprises operating within depressive regions is particularly difficult and requires close attention not only from their owners, but also from public authorities. Their sanation can not occur promptly for unknown reasons. Therefore, their development should take place strategically – in the long term, based on well-designed and built-up forecasts using multiple advanced scientifically proved methods.

Key words: strategy, sanation, depressive, methods, measures, development.

Phrases and turns recommended for writing an abstract

An abstract should be written in plain language so that it is understandable for all professionals who refer to it. The use of poorly known highly specialized terminology and abbreviations is not desirable. It is better to use widely known generally accepted definitions, turns and terms. In order to clearly express the idea, it is worth using the clichés worked out: “In a scientific article, the author investigated / analyzed / studied / examined / tested / proved / generalized…” Excess designations, numeric data and details should be omitted. Do not write an annotation from the 1st person, reflecting personal thoughts. Phrases such as “In my opinion”, “I think”, etc. are inadmissible. It is not necessary to use strains, complex scientific terms and well-known facts.

Typical Mistakes in Writing an Abstract to an Essay

The most important principles of writing an abstract to an essay are brevity and clarity. It is important to interest the reader with a few brief but significant content suggestions. It is necessary to be able to express the main idea of ​​the whole article and the result obtained. The state standard establishes specific requirements. Of course, a small deviation is permissible, but this number should be taken as the basis. In practice, the abstract to the scientific article amounts 50-400 words. The exact volume depends on the requirements of the printed publication and the complexity of the material presented.

To avoid making mistakes, learn these requirements before getting started. It is essentially important to take into account established requirements and generally accepted rules. Most importantly, text of the abstact should reflect the very essence of the article content, interesting the reader with the innovation of the study and making the reader read (which in many cases means buy) the whole text of the article. It should be clear and concise, without complex terms and turns. Write an abstract only after you finish the article.

12 Techniques for Capturing Attention when Writing an Abstract

  1. Segmentation

Get rid of any “blur” when handling. Try to clearly identify the audience. Who will be interested in the book or article? Who after reading it will get the maximum benefit?

Good example:

It will be interesting to the owners of sites, blogs, e-mail-mailing, users of social networks (from the annotation to the book “Content, Marketing and Rock and Roll”).

Let’s spoil a good example:

It will be interesting to all active Internet users and owners of web-resources who want to freely navigate in the world of creating selling content.

  1. Specificity

Specificity always wins generalized information and makes any advertising message clear and believable. Use the specifics in writing abstracts (do not say “flower”, if you can say “rose”). Let the reader desire to read the whole text.


In this article, the brilliant David Ogilvy discovers 7 secrets of writing effective headlines.


In this article, the famous American businessman and copywriter talks about creating effective headlines.

  1. Uniqueness

If all the annotations become similar to each other, then the choice of the reader will turn into a “game of roulette”. Do you consider yourself a lucky person? How often will this choice stop at your “creations”?

Be unique, and the reader will appreciate it. See how your competitors make up the annotations, and offer your solution.

For example:

The book contains a collection of special techniques and methods of capturing reader’s attention.

We add our “individuality”:

The book contains a unique collection of top-secret techniques and methods of capturing reader’s attention, about which you have never heard.

  1. Quick result

Do not make the reader wait for a long time. We all prefer to see the result immediately (quickly, almost instantly).

Which option is better:

After studying the first three paragraphs, you can actually learn the secret and start earning money.


Subsequently, you can see a clearer picture and actually experience gaining useful knowledge.

We hope the main idea is clear.

  1. Sweet bitter truth

It also happens that the book does not much “stand out from the crowd.” That’s hard to catch reader’s attention. How to be? You can, of course, exaggerate, embellish and even lie somewhere. But this is a risk. First you deceive the readers. Then – disappoint them. And then annoy, causing a mistrust syndrome to you in the future. What to do? To tell the truth, which can be “dressed” in an attractive form:

Yes, these techniques and methods have long been known. But they are increasingly forgotten today. But after all, such “tricks” still work in the B2B sales field.

  1. Simple words

Pay attention to the associations that some words cause (symposium, use, analyze, etc.). It can be a negative attitude, laboriousness, complexity. Before you write a particular word, think – can you say it is easier, shorter and in a more positive way (you will not have the second option)?

For comparison:

The article contains the main statements of the leading symposium ____, using this material you ____.


This article contains the main thoughts and theses of the leading seminar ____. Applying them in practice, you can ____.

  1. Away any doubts

Get rid of various doubts, uncertainties and hesitations. Apply only a calm statement, without intrusiveness and fuss.

Imagine an “unsure” abstract:

Most likely, this book will be useful to those who are engaged in sales. Probably, it can help those who want to raise their earnings.

  1. Dynamics and activity

Be more active, gentlemen, more active! Try to pick up vigorous words and expressions, do not forget about the dynamics. Dull and passive abstracts will not be read by anyone (even if they are, no one will pay to read more).


The article presents 78 special techniques and tactics. They are used for capturing reader’s attention.


In the article, you will find 78 techniques and tactics. They can be used for capturing reader’s attention.

  1. Benefits

Try not just to specify characteristics or describe the article, but to name the specific benefits of reading it. What will the reader receive after studying the article / book? What will it give him?

For example:

You get your hands on a powerful tool that will make your texts be sold and make a profit.


You will be able to protect yourself from the 9 mistakes that are made today by every second marketer.


The received knowledge you can easily adapt to any online store, making it as cost-effective as possible.

  1. Call to action

No, there is no need to shout and write in the style of “write to us”, “buy”, “order”, “call right now” (“Buy this book right now, and in a month you will earn twice more”). Approach more delicately, use all your charm:

Find out which 8 main methods of persuasion Joseph Shugerman used in his work.

All you need is to carefully study the proposed methods and introduce them into your business.

  1. Use provocations

The purpose of the annotation is to cause right emotions, to make the reader buy your work. And for this, as they say, all means are good. You can do little and “play it well”.

Let’s see how to achieve the goal, using provocations:

Do you need simple visitors or solid clients who are willing to pay good money for the product?

The book has 1000 and 1 advice for those who want to write, like Joanne Rowling.

  1. Emotions under control

Monitor the emotional flow when composing an abstract to a text or book. Otherwise, the material will turn into empty talk (“This is an incredibly informative book for young mothers, it impresses from the very first lines“).

Identify the golden mean between soullessness and emotions. Believe me, nobody will want to bite dry branches (“There are 27 methods of persuasion in the article, they can be used by sales managers in their work“).

Imagine such an annotation:

Here you will find the best advice on washing windows. They were carefully selected by the most authoritative cleaning agencies. The tips that you learn can make a significant contribution to the development of the window industry.”

It has no specifics, emotions, facts, intrigue, persuasiveness, benefits. There is NOTHING here. Such abstracts are the direct way to a huge layer of dust on your books and texts. Therefore, use the techniques we wrote to write abstracts. Not all of them at once, but selectively. This is not difficult, if you approach the task seriously and deliberately.