Immigration Essay: Example and Tips
Millions of people participate in immigration processes on a global scale every year. An important argument in favor of studying population migration is the scale of this phenomenon. Immigration affects the economic, social, environmental and demographic development of the country and its individual regions. Many problems of immigration have not been solved to date.
Among the demographic processes, population migration occupies a special place. This is one of the few processes that immediately reacts to socio-economic, political and other changes in society. It affects the formation of the population, age, national composition of the population, demographic behavior, level and lifestyle of the population.
Immigration of the population in conditions where the death rate of the population exceeds the birth rate can partially compensate for the natural decline in population, or increase the negative effect of population decline. The combined effect of the natural and migratory movement, which, on the one hand, leads to depopulation in a number of localities, and on the other hand to selective concentration of the population in a few places, leads to serious socioeconomic, political and other consequences.
Assessment of migration processes, their results, interference with other changes in society is possible only taking into account specific space-time features. This determines the need to study the territorial scope of socio-demographic changes in society, the rationale for regional migration policy in terms of objective laws, long-term and current trends in population migration, together with its possible consequences.
Migration of the population is complex by its nature, a social process that is diverse in forms and consequences, which requires more detailed, thorough research, since on the one hand it affects the processes of social development, on the other – it falls under the category of interdisciplinary research. Therefore, for the formation of a new system of knowledge, the questions of methodology, methods and principles of scientific investigation of regularities, the identification of general laws governing the functioning and development of the scientific system of knowledge about population migration are of exceptional importance. The concept of immigration of the population gradually changed and at the same time, the scheme of the approach to the study of the object was changed. As the data on migration accumulated, the most stable characteristics of the studied object were gradually calculated.
Interest in migration intensified after the negative consequences of migration processes became felt at the international level, and mankind faced the need to coordinate the efforts of many countries to resolve acute and problematic situations related to migration and realized the importance of creating a mechanism for its regulation.
Researchers note that there is no generally recognized definition that reflects all the significant signs of this phenomenon. Many dictionaries and textbooks indicate that the term migration has Latin roots – migratio, migro – I move. As applied to the population, migration is the movement of people, usually associated with a change of residence.
At present, it is possible to confine oneself to the definition of population migration in the narrow sense of the word: movement from one settlement to another (resettlements within the settlements refer to micromigration).
Classification of migrations
Classification of migration of the population is needed not so much to distinguish between them, as to uncover the links between them, to search for areas in which their common signs manifest themselves. The most general classifications are based, as a rule, on spatio-temporal (in direction) components, as a result of which there are several classifications of population migration.
It is noted that one of the most common criteria for identifying the migration of the population is the crossing of the administrative boundaries of the territories (states, regions, cities, etc.). On this basis, first of all, external migration (emigration and immigration) and internal migration are distinguished. External migration (international) is connected with the crossing of the state border, it is subdivided into intercontinental and intracontinental (although such a division is conditional). Internal migration includes movements within a country between administrative or economic-geographical areas, settlements, etc. The migration of the rural population and the migration of the urban population are different, interurban migration and migration in rural areas – migration flows are “village – city”, “city – city”, “city – village”, “village – village”. Crucial, especially in developing countries, is rural-urban migration, but with the development of urbanization, the role of urban-urban migration increases. There is a migration within large territorial units, for example, the region, the province, the republic, the economic region and between them.
Among other criteria of classification, is time. With a temporary criterion, permanent or irretrievable migration is allocated (for example, intercontinental migration, migration of rural population to cities) and return migration, which includes temporary migration of the population to study, for certain periods in remote areas, etc., is irrevocable. Often, migration also includes seasonal migration and pendulum (episodic) migration.
In addition, there is a classification of migration by reasons, the main of which are: economic and social (moving in search of work, education, in connection with marriage, etc.). Political, national, religious, military, environmental and other reasons also play an important role. The consequence of the increased influence on the form of migration of the latter was the increase in the number of refugees and internally displaced persons. By the way of realization, migration is divided into an organized and implemented (with the participation of state or public bodies and with their help) and unorganized (individual, amateur), which is carried out by the forces and means of the migrants themselves, forced and illegal.
According to the legal status, migration is classified into registered and unregistered.
According to motivated, it is divided into voluntary and forced migration.
There is no exhaustive list of classifications, they are all conventional, because in reality there are no strict boundaries between the types of migration.
To measure the intensity (scale) of the phenomenon use the concept of “migration activity of the population”, which is equal to the indicator of migration turnover for the territory for a certain period of time.
The indicator of migration turnover is the sum of the numbers of arrivals and departures of migrants.
Migration of the population has played and plays an important role in the development of society. Being one of the forms of people’s adaptation to the changing conditions of the community’s life, migration significantly influences the geography, structure and dynamics of the world’s population – from individual settlements, regions to entire countries and continents. In the past, mass movements of the masses are known for a variety of reasons, both natural and socio-economic.
Modern immigrations are a complex social process. They are closely related to the level of development of the productive forces and their location in different regions. A high level of mobility of the population ensures a more complete use of the labor force, its redistribution between the industrial centers and the developed territories, contributing to economic progress. Experts note that the degree of mobility of the population usually reflects the overall level of the country’s development.
At the same time, the results of immigration are contradictory, since a massive influx of immigrants can cause unemployment to rise, exert excessive pressure on social infrastructure, or, for example, contribute to the concentration of criminal elements. Negative side of migration can also be a significant depopulation and economic regression of areas of mass migration.
Migrations lead to changes in the demographic structure of the population, both in the eviction areas and in the migration areas. Since the most mobile part of the population is the working-age population, and first of all the youth, in the exit areas the population growth rate is decreasing, and not only due to the outflow, but also due to the reduction in natural growth, the “aging” of the population. In areas with a significant influx of migrants, the population is growing at a faster rate, a specific age structure is formed in which the proportion of people of working age, especially youth groups, is significantly higher than the average. In addition, because of the greater migration mobility of the male part of the population, there is a masculinization of the areas of mass influx of migrants. Under the influence of migration, the social structure, ethnic composition, location and population distribution change.