Scientific Essay: Example and Tips
Scientific essay is the first creative work. It is a summary and systematization of the skills and abilities that the student acquired directly working with his supervisor. Research work must meet those requirements in terms of content and form applied to any scientific work. The scientific or scientific-practical problem is considered in this paper: the theoretical preconditions for its solution are generalized and critically comprehended, the provisions and recommendations with the use of the obtained results are substantiated and developed. Consequently, research work is not a transfer, and, moreover, not a statement of literature or other sources, but independent creative work with elements of scientific research.
An important step in preparing a scientist essay by a student is the choice of topic. The subject of the competitive work should correspond to the perspective directions of a certain section of science and to have theoretical and practical value, and also should be connected with the school course and other related educational subjects.
Significant criteria for choosing a topic are:
- availability for a student;
- perspective, theoretical and practical value;
- availability of material and technical resources and sources of information;
- curiosity of the researcher.
The subject of the work can be chosen by the student himself or proposed by the scientific supervisor. In order to successfully solve the problem set in the topic, it is necessary to clearly identify all that has been done before.
- 1 Sources of the work
- 2 Orientation Plan for Writing Scientific Essay
- 3 Structure of Scientific Essay
- 4 Main Requirements for Facilitation of Scientific Work
- 5 Title Page of Scientific Essay
- 6 Comments on Structure of Scientific Essay
- 7 Scientific Essay Example About Black Holes
Sources of the work
There is no doubt that at the beginning of work, it is extremely necessary to carefully analyze and study the literary sources and resources of the Internet in this direction. The review results may show that:
- the problem has been studied and, consequently, further work in this direction is inappropriate or there are few sources of information;
- the problem has not been fully studied, some issues have been studied superficially. Once a student with a research supervisor chose a research topic, it would be advisable to draw up an indicative plan for writing the scientist essay.
Orientation Plan for Writing Scientific Essay
- Development of a plan of essay, which provides the main structural components: introduction, I-IV sections, conclusions, list of used literature.
- Distribution of materials collected and processed during work, in part according to the plan.
- Writing a draft version of the work:
- sheets are numbered;
- he text should not depart from the content;
- if the work turned out to be very voluminous, it is necessary to remove from it everything that does not disclose the topic.
- Design of the finished version of the work:
- checking the draft version of the work with a scientific supervisor, editing;
- preparation of materials for an editor.
Structure of Scientific Essay
- title page;
- the main part (2-3 sections);
- list of sources of information;
Main Requirements for Facilitation of Scientific Work
The list of subjects for scientific work is unlimited. The work should correspond to the rules of designing a scientific paper. Every work should be based on a certain scientific and experimental basis and contain references to the relevant literature, its list, and reflect the researcher’s own position. Scientific work must contain assessments, reviews of relevant specialists (teacher, scientist, specialist in a particular field).
- 1. The text of the paper is printed in the state language only on one side of the sheet.
- 2. Introduction, sections, conclusions, list of used literature, applications should start with a new page. The dot at the end of the header is not put.
- 3. Numbering: – The page numbering is carried out in Arabic numerals without the sign number in the upper right corner without a dot at the end. The numbering begins with the number “3”, ie the title page and the contents are not numbered.
- 4. When preparing scientific essay, the student should not simply rewrite fragments from monographs or documentary sources, but approach them analytically, giving the necessary meaning in terms of writing the research. It is not allowed when a phrase, quotation or document is not backed up by referrals to the source.
- 6. Presentation of illustrations, tables, formulas:
- Illustrations, tables, formulas from the main text are separated by free lines (above and below each formula);
- Illustrations (maps, diagrams, photographs, drawings) and tables should be submitted after the text where they were mentioned for the first time or on the next page. Illustrations are marked with the word “Fig.” And numbered sequentially within the section, except for the illustrations in the annexes. The number of the illustration consists of the section number and the serial number of the illustration;
- the tables are numbered sequentially (except for the tables in the annexes) within the section, such as “Table 1.2”. The title (name) of the table is written symmetrically to the location of the table, indented from the inscription “Table” and from the table itself at 1-2 intervals;
- the explanation of the values of symbols and numerical coefficients must be submitted directly under the formula in the sequence in which they are given in the formula. The value of each symbol and numeric coefficient must be entered from the new line.
7. Appendices should be made on the following pages after the list of literary sources, each application must be cited from a new page.
Title Page of Scientific Essay
The cover sheet has a single common standard. It indicates: the name of educational institution (school, college, university), course. Below – in the middle of the sheet – the name of the work without quotes. (The name should be concise, fully correspond to the contents of the scientific problem.)
Below – information about the performer of work (last name, name, class and place of study, and head of scientific work (last name, middle name, scientific degree, scientific title.)
Below – the place of writing and the year of writing the work.
Content is the second page in which the structure of scientific work with a sequential name for all sections, subunits, conclusions, sources used, application names and page numbers from which they begin are defined. It is convenient to print content in a table whose borders are invisible when printed.
Comments on Structure of Scientific Essay
In the case of use in a scientific essay of a specific terminology, conditional notations, abbreviations, etc., it is necessary to list them. To print a footprint from a new page with two columns in alphabetical order: in the first column – the abbreviation, in the second – decryption.
The introduction should be up to 20% of the total. The introduction has the corresponding components of the sequence located in a certain sequence:
- the relevance of the subject, the author of the study gives an explanation of why, in his opinion, the chosen topic became the object of scientific analysis, substantiates expediency of work in view of social practice;
- the subject and object of research are determined on the basis of an analysis of the state of study of a scientific problem. The object of research is a process or phenomenon that generates a problematic situation and is chosen for study. Subject of research – this is part of the object studied by the author of the work, its quality. It is necessary to indicate whether the subject is new or traditional;
- the purpose of the study – it is possible to outline a range of issues that have not found sufficient coverage in the research of predecessors and what exactly will be considered by the writer in the paper. The goal is formulated in a clear and understandable way and involves covering three aspects: the end result of the research, the object of the study and the way to achieve the end result. The goal may be aimed at identifying relationships, dependencies or regularities between certain phenomena, on the disclosure of the possibilities for improving processes, scientific technologies, etc.
- based on the stated goal, the research tasks should be determined not less than 3-4 (analyze, consider, highlight, research, etc.). The solution of each task is a research phase. Tasks determine the content of the research and the structure of the text of the work, revealing new facts, establishing new connections, new statement of the known problem, original conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the received experimental data;
- the scientific novelty of the results obtained must be substantiated and demonstrated in a similar way with the indication of differences compared with the results that were known earlier;
- the introduction should also reflect the practical or theoretical significance of scientific work, especially for the development (knowledge) of the corresponding sources of science, technology, production, culture.
In conclusions, in the order of the tasks, outline the most important results of research. Conclusions are a brief (without superfluous words) statement of the solution of the research problem. The set of conclusions is a proof of the completeness of the achievement of the set goal, and it can be achieved even in the case when the initial hypothesis was found to be unfounded.
List of literature
The list of sources used contains a bibliographic description of the sources used during the work on the topic. Each source starts with a new line in alphabetical order or in the order of reference in the text (first edition in English, then foreign).
Scientific Essay Example About Black Holes
Black holes … How many fantastic films have been made about them, how many myths are created. And it’s hard to figure out where the truth is here, and where the fiction is. But it is still worth to try.
Where the laws of physics do not work… Many scholars adhere to the following point of view. Some stars surpass the sun by their mass. After some time after their appearance, they can explode. And if, after this explosion, the mass of their “remains” will be twice as large as the mass of the same Sun, then such luminaries turn into Black holes. This is due to the fact that, after the explosion, they begin to rapidly shrink and turn into a very small body.
Such a body does not have a surface, but there is a boundary that is called the boundary of events. The space is distorted near this boundary, the laws of physics cease to operate. If any object is located not far from the Black Hole, it is unlikely that it will be able to overcome the force of attraction that operates in this space. The black hole sucks the space objects.
The forces of attraction of the Black Hole act in such a way that an object entering into the Black Hole immediately loses its connection with the surrounding world. Therefore the exploding star was called the Black Hole. It tightens all the light beams that pass close to it, so it is called Black.
How to see a black hole? The black hole itself is invisible. In this case, of course, the question arises how scientists discover Black holes. And it is done by gravitational waves that reach the Earth. J. Weber, a specialist who worked on this problem, designed special sensors to see Black holes. However, his data seemed to many unlikely, since the devices worked too often.
Interestingly, Roger Penrose, a professor of mathematical sciences, suggests that black holes can disappear and appear in some other world. In addition, the scientist assumes that after these stars disappear, turning into Black Holes, they can again be formed in our Universe, just in other place.
In general, a person can not study Black holes because no signals from an object that has fallen into the hole go out. So humanity does not know the inner structure of the hole, nor what happens to the objects that hit them, except that these objects will begin to fall.
“Black holes” are one of the most mysterious and favorite space objects of science fiction. There are so many legends about these former stars, which are capable of absorbing entire planets and even star systems. Some even consider them as gates to other dimensions, about which nothing is known to mankind. So what are “black holes” really?
The term “black hole” was introduced in 1968 by American physicist John Wheeler. Previously, the names “collapsar” and “frozen star” were used to designate these space objects. The first who suggested the existence of invisible stars was the scientist Pierre Simon Laplace (1749 – 1827), who lived in the XVIII-XIX centuries.
The star releases energy due to the reactions occurring inside it, but for the reactions hydrogen is needed, which will end sooner or later. When this happens, the internal pressure is no longer able to restrain the force of gravity, which is trying to compress the star. For some stars, the compression process occurs disastrously quickly. This phenomenon is called gravitational collapse. The star is compacted, as if falling inside itself. At the same time, the star cools down, ceases to emit light and heat and becomes invisible, but the mass, density and force of the resulting black hole are enormous. Thus, from a powerful source of energy, the star turns into its absorber.
Possessing high gravity, the “black hole” seems to be sucking in other space objects – asteroids and even whole planets. Moreover, even relatively small “black holes” with a mass several times larger than the Sun are capable of this. Astronomers managed to detect supermassive black holes, whose mass can exceed the mass of the Sun by millions of times. Typically, these giants are located in the center of galaxies. Such “black holes” are able to absorb not only planets and stars, but also their less massive counterparts.
In astronomy, “black holes” are usually divided into three types: the first type is the “black holes” of stellar masses (about 10 times the sun’s mass), the second – supermassive “black holes” in the centers of galaxies (masses from a million to billions of suns) , the third is the primary “black holes” that appeared at the beginning of the formation of the Universe (their mass is comparable to the mass of the asteroid). A person is not able to see the “black hole”: it can only be determined by gamma radiation, which is released when black objects are absorbed by space objects.