Climate Change Essay: Example and Tips

The following example of climate change essay should be used as a source of information and inspiration. We do not advise direct copy and paste of the parts of the text or the whole paper, because of plagiarism detection. For the ease of use, the paper is divided into logical parts.

Example of climate change essay

Introduction to climate change essay example

In recent years, the climate on Earth has changed markedly: some countries suffer from anomalous heat, others from too harsh and snowy winters unusual for these places.

Environmentalists talk about global climate change including an increase in the average annual temperature causing melting of glaciers and an increase in the level of the world’s oceans. In addition to warming, there is also an unbalance of all natural systems, which leads to a change in the regime of precipitation, temperature anomalies and an increase in the frequency of extreme events such as hurricanes, floods and droughts.

According to scientists, for ten months of 2015 the average temperature of the planet was 1.02° C higher than that recorded in the XIX century (when the observation of changes in global temperature began). The threshold of one degree was exceeded for the first time in modern history. Scientists agree that the cause lies in human activity – burning of oil, gas and coal – that leads to greenhouse effect that causes an increase in average temperature. Experts note that between 2000 and 2010, the most powerful increase in greenhouse gas emissions over the past 30 years has been observed. According to the World Meteorological Organization, in 2014, their concentration in the atmosphere reached a record high level.

Secretary General of the World Meteorological Organization Michel Jarraud said: “We do not see CO2. This is not a visible threat, but quite real. This means an increase in global temperatures, an increase in the number of extreme weather events, such as floods, melting ice, rising sea level and increasing the acidity of the oceans.”

Body of climate change essay example

If countries do not begin to seriously deal with the problem of environmental protection, by 2100 the temperature on the planet can rise by 3.7-4.8° C. Climatologists warn: irreversible consequences for the ecology will come even with a warming of more than 2° C.

In order to draw maximum attention to climate problems, the UN has attracted not only politicians and scientists, but also celebrities, to the debate. Hollywood actor Robert Redford in his statement warned that for the international community “the time of half measures and the denial of the problem of climate change has ended.”

“We see the effects of this phenomenon (climate change) everywhere – from drought and hunger in Africa and the drying up heat in South Asia to wildfires in North America, devastating hurricanes and floods in New York. We must act together because climate change affects every country” – actor Robert Redford.

What are the consequences for the planet, if the temperature rise can not be stopped?

Natural disasters

The climatic zones will shift, the weather changes will become more severe (severe frosts, followed by sudden thaws in winter, an increase in the number of abnormally hot days in summer). The frequency and strength of abnormal phenomena such as droughts and floods will increase.

The connection between climate change and the emergence of natural disasters was proved by American scientists who discovered traces of warming in the study of tropical cyclones in the Pacific, unusually high summer temperatures in Europe, China, South Korea and Argentina, and forest fires in the US state of California. Climate change has also catalyzed drought in Africa and the Middle East, snowstorms in Nepal and torrential downpours that have caused floods in Canada and New Zealand.

Unsuitable territories for living

Some countries due to increased humidity and high average temperature by 2100 may become unsuitable for life. According to a study by American scientists, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and other countries of the Middle East are at risk.

According to the calculations of climatologists, at the current rate of growth of greenhouse gas emissions by 2070 the average air temperature in the countries of the Persian Gulf can reach 74-77° C. This will make the territories unsuitable for people. An exception may be large megacities with a developed air conditioning system. But people will be able to leave the house only at night.

The impact on biological diversity

According to some scientists, we are in the middle of the sixth in the history of the Earth mass extinction of species. And this time this process is caused by human actions. If climate warming does not stop, many ecosystems, species of living beings that they contain, will become less diverse, less saturated.

There are forecasts of extinction of up to 30-40% of plant and animal species, as their habitat will change faster than they can adapt to these changes.

Lack of drinking water, hunger and epidemics

UN experts warn that warming will negatively affect yields, especially in the underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, which will lead to food problems. According to scientists, by 2080 the number of people facing the threat of hunger can increase by 600 million people.

Another important consequence of climate change may be a shortage of drinking water. In regions with arid climate (Central Asia, the Mediterranean, South Africa, Australia, etc.), the situation will be further exacerbated by the reduction in rainfall.

Hunger, water scarcity, and insect migration can lead to an increase in epidemics and the spread of tropical diseases such as malaria in the northern regions.

Climate change can affect not only people’s health, but also increase the risk of political disagreements and conflicts for access to water and food resources.

Increasing the level of the world ocean

One of the most tangible consequences of climate warming is likely to be the melting of glaciers and an increase in the level of the World Ocean. Millions of people on the coast will die from frequent floods or will be forced to relocate, UN analysts predict.

According to the expert community, sea level rise in the 21st century will be up to 1 m (in the 20th century – 0.1-0.2 m). In this case, the most vulnerable are the lowlands, coastal areas and small islands.

The first to enter the risk zone are the Netherlands, Bangladesh and small island states, such as the Bahamas, the Maldives.

Significant territories can be flooded in countries such as Russia, the United States, Britain, Italy, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Iraq, Thailand and Vietnam. Serious damage threatens China, where about 140 million people can lose their homes, and Japan, where it can flood more than 30 million people – a quarter of the country’s population.

Facts about climate change and its consequences for different countries

  • The rise in the level of the World Ocean threatens many cities with flooding. One of the first to go under the water is Venice. The Italian city is located on several islands, the maximum height of which does not exceed 2 meters above sea level;
  • Even now in Venice, there are regular floods. In 2008, in some areas of the city the water rose by 156 centimeters, and on the San Marco square by 70-80 centimeters;
  • A rise in sea level of more than 2 meters will lead to the flooding of Amsterdam. The fourth part of the Netherlands is located below sea level. While the country is being protected from floods by protective dams;
  • Hamburg also uses dams to protect against floods, which occur regularly in Germany’s second largest city. Hamburg can go underwater if the sea level rises by 2.5 meters.
  • The level of 2.5 meters is critical for St. Petersburg, Russia as well;
  • Los Angeles will be at risk of flooding if the level of the ocean rises by 3 meters;
  • The same 3 meters, according to climatologists, can completely flood the New York area of ​​Lower Manhattan;
  • The aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, which caused floods and severe destruction in America, forced the New York authorities to adopt a plan to protect the city from storms and the effects of warming, which would cost almost $ 20 billion;
  • Most of New Orleans is below sea level. The city is protected by dams, but they could not help residents when in 2005 they were hit by a hurricane Katrina. Hundreds of thousands of people who left after New Orleans, can be considered the first in the US climate refugees. In the future, due to rising sea level, the situation can only worsen;
  • Most of London, especially in the south and east, is located on the swamp. Therefore, even a slight increase in sea level increases the risk of serious flooding in the Thames delta;
  • Now in London there is the so-called “Thames Barrier”, which protects the city from tides. A new problem may be the rising water level in the upper Thames, which affects the entire suburb of London;
  • The average height of Shanghai above sea level is 6.5 meters. However, part of the city is located in the lowlands, where about 5.5 million people live, which will suffer in case of rising water levels. The authorities only recently began to think about protecting the city from floods. Shanghai is not the only city of China, which is threatened by flooding. The vast territories of cities such as Guangzhou and Hong Kong are located below sea level.

What can we do to stop or slow down climate change?

According to scientists, it is unlikely to completely stop the climate change to mankind. However, the international community is able to contain the temperature increase in order to avoid irreversible environmental consequences. To do this, it is necessary to limit greenhouse gas emissions, develop alternative energy and develop a strategy to reduce risks due to warming.

What can an ordinary person do to slow down climate change?

Adapting the life of society to new conditions

Plans to minimize damage from climate change should cover all areas of human activities, including health, agriculture and infrastructure.

In cold areas, for example, you need to change the storm sewage system, prepare for storm winds (recalculate the strength of structures), change the fire-fighting system – droughts increase the fire hazard.

However, different states have different opportunities to level out the impact of climate change. For example, Holland and Bangladesh experience the same problems: there are more storms, the ocean level has risen. But in Holland there is already a plan of action, they know how they will strengthen the dams, where they will take the funds. And in Bangladesh, there is nothing of this. Thus, most of the measures needed for adaptation are simple and straightforward, but they require tools and effective planning.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions

According to climatologists, in order to keep the temperature rise up to 2° C, countries need to halve global emissions by 2050 in relation to the level of 1990 by 2050, and to the end of the 21st century – to zero.

According to PwC analysts, since 2000, on average, Britain has reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 3% per year, France by 2.7%, the USA by 2.3%. The average annual reduction in carbon emissions over the past 15 years was 1.3%.

However, these efforts are not enough. To prevent irreversible climate change, the annual reduction of carbon dioxide emissions up to 2100 should be at least 6.3%.

This means, on the one hand, it is necessary to introduce energy-saving technologies, on the other – to switch to alternative energy sources.

Conclusion to the climate change essay example

To sum up the information given above, let’s repeat the main threats related to warming:

  • Increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of droughts in some regions, extreme precipitation, floods, cases of unsafe soil for agriculture – in others;
  • Increase of fire danger in forests and peat bogs;
  • violation of the habitual way of life of indigenous northern peoples;
  • degradation of permafrost with damage to buildings and communications;
  • violation of ecological balance, displacement of some biological species by others;
  • increase in electricity consumption for air conditioning in the summer season for a large country.

Even in the worst situation, there are some positive changes:

  • warming in the Arctic will increase the duration of navigation along the Northern Sea Route and facilitate the development of oil and gas deposits on the shelf;
  • the heating season will decrease, and, accordingly, the energy consumption will decrease;
  • the northern boundary of agriculture will shift to the north, due to which the area of ​​agricultural land will grow, especially in Western Siberia and the Urals.