How to Write Papers Using Chicago/Turabian Style
All academic writing is supposed to follow certain format style guidelines. The choice of the format for your writing will depend on the goal of your writing and your field of studies. The main format styles for academic writing are APA (American Psychological Association), ASA (American Sociological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago / Turabian.
When you are writing an article to be published in a journal on social sciences or history, your writing will most likely have to fulfill the requirements of Chicago / Turabian format style, because this format was specifically developed for this kind of publications. There is a comprehensive and detailed guide on this format style, called Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). If you have to write in this format, be encouraged to look up this manual. Yet, we realized that this may be a tedious read, so we have condensed its main points in this brief article.
Overall, the Chicago / Turabian style has the following format requirements:
- Font. Neither the particular font type, nor the particular font size is specified. It is only mentioned that it has to be clear. The recommended type is Times New Roman, and the recommended size is 12.
- Spaces. The spaces are supposed to be double except block quotations.
- Margins. You set the margins to 2”
- There should be no blank lines or spaces between the paragraphs.
- Author’s name. You place the name of the author in the upper right corner of every page except the title page.
- Page numeration. The numbering begins with the number 2 on the second page, the title page does not get a number. The page numbers are placed in the upper right corner next to the author’s name.
- Quotes. Each quotation – direct or indirect – should come with a footnote.
Concerning format, the Chicago / Turabian style suggests the division of the paper into the following sections: the title page, the main body, and the bibliography. The title page is the cover page. It is followed by the main body which is your article proper. The final section is the bibliography where you list all the cited works of other authors that you used in your essay. Let us take a look at these sections.
CHICAGO / TURABIAN TITLE PAGE
This is just one page with very little information, so the main thing to pay attention to here is the spacing. It is possible that your professor will specify the requirements in this regards. If they do not, then you follow the general guidelines which go as follows:
- The title of the work is placed about ¼ of the page down from the top.
- If the title is longer than one line, then you set the spacing to double.
- The author’s name is placed in the middle of the title page.
- ¼ of the page below the author’s name you type the course name and/or number, the name of the instructor, and the date, – all in separate lines. The spacing is once again double.
CHICAGO / TURABIAN MAIN BODY
We have already listed the format requirements for the main body, proper for your article. The only remaining point that requires extra attention is the citations. They can be either parenthetical (or in-text), or in the form of footnotes or endnotes.
In-text citations should be formatted by the following guidelines:
- Each citation should be complemented with the author’s name, publication date, and page number (if applicable).
- No non-authentic abbreviations are allowed within the citation.
- No comma or any other punctuation character separates the author’s name and the date of publishing.
- There is, however, a comma to separate the date of publishing and the page number (if applicable).
- The in-text citations are only necessary for direct quotations. An indirect quotation can be referenced with a footnote.
- If you are quoting a source with no author, you can use the shortened title.
- If you are quoting the same pages of the same source, you only put the citation after the final instance of its usage.
- Otherwise, you should cite every quotation that you are using in full. This can get tedious and decrease the readability of the text. Therefore, it is recommended to use as little quotes as possible. Of course, this does not mean that you should try your best to clear your article of any quotations.
Here is an example of how you quote another author’s work in Chicago / Turabian format:
Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the “lithotint” process in 1840 (Twyman 1970, 145-146).
According to the Chicago / Turabian style format, footnotes or endnotes are meant to be used every time you quote a source – directly or indirectly. The difference between them is that footnotes are put at the bottom of the page where the source is referenced, whereas endnotes are put at the end of the chapter (if your article is divided into chapters) or at the end of the whole article. It is up to you whether to opt for footnotes or endnotes. Both footnotes and endnotes begin with their respective superscript number, followed by all the relevant information about the source: author’s name, title, date of publication, and page number (if applicable).
If you cite the same source more than once, the corresponding footnote or endnote will only include author’s name, title (if the title is over four words, you can shorten it), and page number. Alternatively, you can just write “Ibid” – it will mean that you are referencing the same source as previously. If you are quoting a different page of the same source, then you write then page number after the word “Ibid”.
Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem. 1
1 Valerie M. Hudson, “Culture and Foreign Policy”. Boulder 1997, 5.
2 Hudson, “Culture and Foreign Policy” 10.
3 Ibid 12
Optionally, a footnote or an endnote can be directly followed by the author’s expanded comment on the quotation cited.
CHICAGO / TURABIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY
The final part of your article is the bibliography. This is where you list all the sources that you have been using in your research and throughout your article. By all the sources we also mean the ones that you have already mentioned in your footnotes and/or endnotes. Remember to also include the sources that have influenced your work even if you have not cited them. Other requirements to Chicago / Turabian style format bibliography are the following:
- the word “Bibliogrpahy” is placed at the top of the page in the center of the line;
- the titles are listed in the alphabetical order;
- you mention only the first and last names of the authors;
- titles of shorter works like articles or chapters are written in quotation marks;
- titles of longer works like books or journals are written in italic;
- all elements in a citation are separated by periods.
Here are examples of how to cite different sources in your bibliography according to Chicago / Turabian format style:
– Book with one author:
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
– Book with two or more authors:
Ward, Geoffrey, and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.
– Chapter (or another kind of section) of a book:
Kelly, John. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
– Book published electronically:
Kurland, Philip, and Ralph Lerner. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Kindle edition.
– An article in a journal:
Weinstein, Joshua. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology #104 (2009)
– Online resource:
NEED SOME HELP?
Now you know how to format your article in Chicago / Turabian style. Sure, no matter ho detailed this info may, practice is everything – so, do not despair if some of the formatting aspects are still confusing. If there are still some details or issues regarding this style that leave you confused, you are welcome to contact professionals to do it for you.
When you are writing an article on a truly interesting topic, it is very easy to get carried away and pay attention only to the brilliant content, forgetting about such small details as formatting. Yet, these little details have the power to stop your great article from being published. Or – if you are writing for a college course – you can get a lower grade merely because your writing does not meet the Chicago / Turabian format style requirements. Sad as it may seem, this is how the things go. So, if you feel uncertain about your formatting skills, it is better to contact professionals for assistance. Our highly qualified editors will be more than happy to reach out with a helping hand.We will make sure that every paper of your is polished to perfection.