All academic writing is supposed to follow certain format style guidelines. The choice of the format for your writing will depend on the goal of your writing and your field of studies. The main format styles for academic writing are APA (American Psychological Association), ASA (American Sociological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago / Turabian.
When you are writing an article to be published in a journal on social sciences or history, your writing will most likely have to fulfill the requirements of Chicago / Turabian format style, because this format was specifically developed for this kind of publications. There is a comprehensive and detailed guide on this format style, called Chicago Manual of Style (CMS). If you have to write in this format, be encouraged to look up this manual. Yet, we realized that this may be a tedious read, so we have condensed its main points in this brief article.
Overall, the Chicago / Turabian style has the following format requirements:
Concerning format, the Chicago / Turabian style suggests the division of the paper into the following sections: the title page, the main body, and the bibliography. The title page is the cover page. It is followed by the main body which is your article proper. The final section is the bibliography where you list all the cited works of other authors that you used in your essay. Let us take a look at these sections.
This is just one page with very little information, so the main thing to pay attention to here is the spacing. It is possible that your professor will specify the requirements in this regards. If they do not, then you follow the general guidelines which go as follows:
We have already listed the format requirements for the main body, proper for your article. The only remaining point that requires extra attention is the citations. They can be either parenthetical (or in-text), or in the form of footnotes or endnotes.
In-text citations should be formatted by the following guidelines:
Here is an example of how you quote another author’s work in Chicago / Turabian format:
Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the “lithotint” process in 1840 (Twyman 1970, 145-146).
According to the Chicago / Turabian style format, footnotes or endnotes are meant to be used every time you quote a source – directly or indirectly. The difference between them is that footnotes are put at the bottom of the page where the source is referenced, whereas endnotes are put at the end of the chapter (if your article is divided into chapters) or at the end of the whole article. It is up to you whether to opt for footnotes or endnotes. Both footnotes and endnotes begin with their respective superscript number, followed by all the relevant information about the source: author’s name, title, date of publication, and page number (if applicable).
If you cite the same source more than once, the corresponding footnote or endnote will only include author’s name, title (if the title is over four words, you can shorten it), and page number. Alternatively, you can just write “Ibid” – it will mean that you are referencing the same source as previously. If you are quoting a different page of the same source, then you write then page number after the word “Ibid”.
Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem. 1
1 Valerie M. Hudson, “Culture and Foreign Policy”. Boulder 1997, 5.
2 Hudson, “Culture and Foreign Policy” 10.
3 Ibid 12
Optionally, a footnote or an endnote can be directly followed by the author’s expanded comment on the quotation cited.
The final part of your article is the bibliography. This is where you list all the sources that you have been using in your research and throughout your article. By all the sources we also mean the ones that you have already mentioned in your footnotes and/or endnotes. Remember to also include the sources that have influenced your work even if you have not cited them. Other requirements to Chicago / Turabian style format bibliography are the following:
Here are examples of how to cite different sources in your bibliography according to Chicago / Turabian format style:
– Book with one author:
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
– Book with two or more authors:
Ward, Geoffrey, and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.
– Chapter (or another kind of section) of a book:
Kelly, John. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
– Book published electronically:
Kurland, Philip, and Ralph Lerner. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Kindle edition.
– An article in a journal:
Weinstein, Joshua. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology #104 (2009)
– Online resource:
NEED SOME HELP?
Now you know how to format your article in Chicago / Turabian style. Sure, no matter ho detailed this info may, practice is everything – so, do not despair if some of the formatting aspects are still confusing. If there are still some details or issues regarding this style that leave you confused, you are welcome to contact professionals to do it for you.
When you are writing an article on a truly interesting topic, it is very easy to get carried away and pay attention only to the brilliant content, forgetting about such small details as formatting. Yet, these little details have the power to stop your great article from being published. Or – if you are writing for a college course – you can get a lower grade merely because your writing does not meet the Chicago / Turabian format style requirements. Sad as it may seem, this is how the things go. So, if you feel uncertain about your formatting skills, it is better to contact professionals for assistance. Our highly qualified editors will be more than happy to reach out with a helping hand.We will make sure that every paper of your is polished to perfection.