Summary Essay: Example and Tips

Summary is a brief description of a written work usually of scientific character in terms of its purpose, content, type, form and other features.

The summary performs the following functions:

  • provides an opportunity to establish the main content of a scientific article, determine its relevance and decide whether to refer to the full text of the article;
  • used in information, including automated systems for information retrieval.

The summary should include a description of the main topic, problems of a scientific article, goals of the work and its results. In the summary, author indicates what the new article carries in itself in comparison with others, related to the subject and purpose.

The recommended average summary volume is 500 characters.

Recommended phrases for writing summary to a scientific article:

  • The article under consideration addresses the issue
  • Substantiates the idea that
  • The article touches upon the topic
  • Comparison is given
  • The article is devoted to a comprehensive study
  • The purpose of the article is to analyze the study
  • The article is devoted to the phenomenon
  • The article reveals the problems
  • Particular attention is paid to
  • The article analyzes
  • The author concludes that
  • The author focuses the main attention
  • Characteristics are distinguished and described
  • The article clarified the features
  • The article is devoted to close analysis
  • This problem is poorly understood and requires further research
  • The article summarizes the new material on the studied topic, introduced into the scientific circulation
  • The author suggested
  • The work has an interdisciplinary character, written at the interface
  • The main content of the study is analysis of
  • This view will be of interest to specialists in the field
  • The article deals with
  • Considerable attention is paid to
  • In conclusion, the author revealed
  • The article reveals the content of the concept
  • The author traces the formation
  • Summarizes practical experience
  • The article explores the characteristic signs
  • The article discusses the key stages
  • As a research task, the authors identified an attempt to evaluate
  • The article reveals the processes
  • The author gives a generalized description
  • This trend is complemented by a review
  • It justifies the idea that
  • The article analyzes the concepts
  • As key evidence … is used
  • The article provides an analysis of the views of researchers
  • The issue of … continues to be debatable.
  • This article attempts to uncover the root causes
  • The article sets out the views on
  • The author seeks to follow the process
  • The article provides an analysis of scientific research …

Example of summary to a scientific article

The article is devoted to the philosophical understanding of network communications in modern society, which introduce new forms of dialogue and communication in the society and all its spheres, including education. It is shown that network communications play a dual role in society: they can form a clip-maker consciousness, which does not require creativity, or develop creative, search, and navigational thinking. Education in the XXI century should be developed according to the network model, which is characterized by synergistic, dialogic and communicative aspects. The main advantage of the new model is openness for dialogue and communication and the possibility of self-organization.

Summary essay example on Titanic movie

In 1996, treasure hunter Brock Lovett and his crew plunge to the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean to the Titanic liner, which sank April 14, 1912. They find a safe in which, according to Lovett’s suggestion, there should be a necklace with a blue diamond, known as the “Heart of the Ocean”. At the beginning of the 20th century, one Pittsburgh Rothschild Nathan Hockley bought it for his industrial son, Caledon, who presented a necklace as a wedding gift to his English bride, Rosa Dewitt Buickater, with whom he sailed on Titanic to get married. Caledon escaped during the disaster, Rosa died, and the necklace was lost and, presumably, went to the bottom along with the ship. But, to the dismay of the researchers, only soaked papers, among which there is a well-preserved portrait dated April 14, 1912, are in the safe.

Portrait, signed by the initials “J. D.”, depicts a naked girl with a similar necklace. Meanwhile, the former actress Rosa Kelvert, a woman at the age of less than 101 years, watches a TV report on CNN about this expedition and sees a portrait of a naked woman. She calls Brock Lovett and informs him that she knows about the “Heart of the Ocean” diamond and that the girl in the portrait is herself. Rosa, accompanied by her granddaughter Lizzy, flies a helicopter to the research vessel used by Lovett and his crew at the diving site. Rosa begins her story.

On April 10, 1912, the 17-year-old Rosa, her mother Ruth and Caledon Hockley climb aboard the Titanic in Southampton as 1st class passengers. The future marriage of Rosa and Caledon is entirely in a calculated position – Ruth wants to give the daughter of a rich man in order to improve her financial situation, which has been shattered after the death of her husband. Meanwhile, a young American tramp and an artist from Wisconsin, Jack Dawson, who was trying his luck in Europe, and his friend Fabrizio, on the other hand, who dreams of leaving for America, win the third class of airliner tickets in the poker room and at the very last moment have time to get on board.

Rosa is a freedom-loving girl, the morality of high society is alien to her. In the evening, when the ship is on its way, in a fit of despair, she wants to commit suicide by jumping off the ship, but Jack stops her. Soon, they were discovered by three members of the Titanic team, who, having misunderstood the situation, first twisted Jack, thinking that he wanted to rape the girl, but Rose stood up for him. Caledon very vaguely thanks Jack, reluctantly inviting him to dine with them the next evening in the first-class dining room. From this moment on, friendship is made between Jack and Rosa. He shows her his album with artwork. Their relationship becomes deeper when they leave the 1st class passengers during lunch and run off to the 3rd class cabins, where the celebration is taking place in the midst of a holiday that Rosa likes. However, Caledon and Ruth will find out where she was, and instruct the protection of the first class cabins to keep Jack out of them.

April 14, with the help of Fabrizio and their friend Tommy Ryan, Jack manages to sneak onto the upper deck and steal a coat and hat, which will allow him to be on the deck without arousing suspicion. He drags Rosa into the gym and tries to convince her that she should leave the high life for her own happiness, and in fact confesses his love. They, embracing, look at the sunset, the last for the majority on the ship passengers. A little later, Rose asks him to paint her portrait – she wants to pose nude with only the “Heart of the Ocean” pendant around her neck. The girl hides the drawing along with the diamond in the safe, writing a caustic note to Caledon. Meanwhile, the valet and the bloodhound of Caledon finds Jack and Rosa together and starts chasing them all over the liner, but loses them at the entrance to the boiler room. In the cargo compartment, intimate relationships between young people begin.

Meanwhile, Captain Smith ignores warnings about the numerous icebergs in the ship’s path, and the Titanic continues to go at night at high speed. After the forward-looking Frederic Fleet and Reginald Lee were distracted by Rosa and Jack, kissing on the bow deck, they suddenly see an iceberg right in front of the Titanic. Despite the efforts of the watch officer and engineers in the boiler room and in the engine room, it is not possible to avoid a collision. At 23:40, the liner hits the iceberg with the full force of the starboard and the water begins to penetrate into the nasal compartments of the liner. The iceberg was seen only by people on the upper decks, including Jack and Rosa. Passengers who were in the salons and cabins of the vessel do not know anything about the collision.

Caledon finds a drawing and a diamond in his safe and guesses about the relationship of Jack and Rose. As soon as they resort to Caledon to report a collision, he accuses Jack of stealing a diamond (according to his order, Lovejoy threw the diamond into Jack’s coat pocket) and ordered one of the policemen to handcuff him and lock him in one of the cabins. Meanwhile, Captain Smith is told that the ship is doomed and will sink in the next two hours, and the nearest ship, Carpathia, will be able to come to help only after 4 hours. Smith orders an evacuation of the first women and children to board the boats. In a conversation with Caledon, Rosa feels that Jack is innocent. Despite the chance to escape from a sinking liner with her mother in a lifeboat, Rosa runs away. Rosa learns from Thomas Andrews how to get to the room where Jack is, and which is now slowly filling with water. After a series of tests, Rosa manages to free Jack, and then they get out of the flooded area to the upper deck, where Caledon is looking for a bride.

Rose refuses to float without Jack, and then he and Caledon have to temporarily unite to convince her to get on the boat. Caledon gives her his coat, forgetting that he put a diamond in his pocket. As soon as the lifeboat begins to float, Rosa realizes that she cannot leave Jack and jumps out of the boat onto one of the lower decks. Rose and Jack meet on a large staircase, and infuriated Caledon grabs his gun from Lovejoy and stalks the lovers by shooting them. Jack and Rosa make their way back to the upper deck and are finally selected, but by that time there are only two lifeboats on the deck.

Meanwhile, the water begins to quickly flood the lower decks, approaching the boat. Passengers begin to panic. Tommy and Fabrizio are quietly trying to get into the first boat. William Murdoch, who is responsible for launching the boat, threatens to shoot at any man who tries to get into the boat, and in response to Caledon’s attempt to remind him of “persuasion”, he throws the money received earlier into his face. Meanwhile, one of the passengers is trying to get to the boat on the superstructure of the upper deck and Murdoch kills him, and then shoots Tommy, who is accidentally pushed by the crowd to the lying boat. Tommy dies in Fabrizio’s arms. Realizing what he did, Murdoch salutes the doomed ship and commits suicide.

Caledon still sits in a lifeboat, pretending to be the father to the lost child. At this time, the water already reaches the bow of the boat deck and begins to flood the officers’ cabins, the captain’s bridge, and the orchestra “Titanic” plays the final song “Nearer, My God, to Thee”. Many people lose hope of salvation and are waiting for their death. The captain is shown for the last time at the moment when the water, breaking the glazing, floods the wheelhouse. Caledon, seeing that the boat is already full and no longer sustain anyone, begins to fight off people in the water with an oar. Jack and Rose head to the very end of the aft liner, which rises higher. Soon the light goes out on the liner and immediately after that, under its own weight, the liner breaks into two parts, and sink.

Under the water, Jack and Rosa manage to get out, they barely find each other among sinking people, and Jack manages to drag Rosa onto a floating piece of wood paneling, but because of its narrowness, Jack cannot climb on it. He asks his beloved to swear that she will do everything to survive. One of the lifeboats decided to return to the crash site in order to try to find one of the survivors. Rosa hears distant cries and turns to Jack, trying to wake him, but discovers that he has died of hypothermia. She is trying to scream to attract the attention of the boat, but her voice from hypothermia is already husky. Having promised Jack, Rosa uses the whistle and attracts the attention of the lifeboat. Later, on the deck of the Carpathians, Rosa sees the Caledon for the last time, who is looking for her, but she tries to remain unnoticed by him, and he leaves with nothing (she says, over the scenes, that Caledon later married and inherited her father’s money, but during the collapse 1929 lost them all and eventually shot himself). Later, during the census of survivors, she calls herself Rosa Dawson, thereby finally breaking with her past life.

Old Rose, having finished her story, later, at night, unnoticed by anyone, goes to the stern, and it turns out that she kept the “Heart of the Ocean” all this time with her. Having risen on a handrail, Rosa throws a necklace into the water, where the sunken Titanic rests. Then the camera is transferred to the woman’s cabin, where a girl is captured on a bed in a photograph taken on a bedside table sitting on a horse on a pier in Santa Monica (she and Jack dreamed of going there together). Then the camera shows the sleeping Rose, whose consciousness is suddenly transferred to the bottom of the Atlantic, where the bow of the sunken Titanic appears before the viewer, which is then transformed into its original state during its first and last journey. Next, the camera flies to the front staircase, where a rejuvenated Rose surrounded by everyone who died that night. The final scene is accompanied by the song “My Heart Will Go On” by Celine Dion.